Collapse of unreinforced masonry (URM) walls is the cause of many casualties during extreme loading events. The objective of this current research was to investigate effective and practical approaches for strengthening URM block walls with openings to resist extreme out-of-plane loads. Five full-scale masonry block walls were constructed. The walls had different opening configurations such as a single center window, one window off center, two windows, a wide window and a door. The walls were tested when subjected to uniformly distributed lateral load up to failure. The walls were then strengthened using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer laminate strips and then retested. The walls were set up in a vertical test frame and were subjected to cyclic out-of-plane distributed pressure using an airbag. Failure of the unstrengthened URM block wall was along the mortar joints. In the strengthened walls, failure occurred in the mortar joints as well as in concrete blocks near the carbon strips. The lateral load carrying capacity of the strengthened walls was found to be significantly higher than that of the unstrengthened walls and had much more ductile performance.
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Out-of-Plane Strengthening of Unreinforced Masonry Walls with Openings
Journal of Composites for ConstructionNovember 2009
Journal of Composites for ConstructionDecember 2008
Journal of Structural EngineeringApril 2009
Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, McMaster Univ., Hamilton ON, Canada L8S 4L7.
Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Civil Engineering, McMaster Univ., Hamilton ON, Canada L8S 4L7.
Received: February 21, 2003
Accepted: June 05, 2003
Published online: July 15, 2004
Copyright © 2004 American Society of Civil Engineers