Abstract

Effects of hydration fluid and long-term field exposure on moisture-suction relationships for three types of needlepunched geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) containing granular sodium bentonite were investigated using the pressure plate, filter paper, and relative humidity methods over a wide range of suction (0–400,000 kPa). Tests were conducted on virgin GCLs hydrated with deionized (DI) water, tap water, and a 0.07 M CaCl2 solution as well as a GCL exhumed from a landfill cover test plot 9 years after installation. Hysteresis in the moisture-suction relationship decreased progressively for GCLs hydrated with DI water (maximum hysteresis) to tap water to the CaCl2 solution to the field exhumed conditions (minimum hysteresis), with the drying and wetting paths of the moisture-suction relationship converging for the tests with CaCl2 solution and the exhumed GCL. The liquid limit, plasticity index, swell index, bulk void ratio, and water content at zero suction decreased as the hydration condition varied from DI and tap water to the CaCl2 solution and the field exhumed specimen. Both crystalline and osmotic swelling occurred in the GCLs hydrated with DI and tap water, whereas only crystalline swelling occurred in the GCLs hydrated with CaCl2 and in the field-exposed GCL. The field-exhumed GCL exhibited nearly complete cation exchange. Mole fractions of Na+ bound to the bentonite decreased from 61% in DI water to less than 1% for the exhumed GCL.

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Acknowledgments

This investigation was supported in part by the Global Waste Research Institute. Mr. Darius was supported by funds provided by a National Science Foundation REU Site Grant: EEC-1263337. The BC and CEC tests were conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The assistance of Mr. Jiannan N. Chen, Ms. Hulya Salihoglu, and Mr. Weijun Geng of the University of Wisconsin-Madison is appreciated. The US Department of Energy’s Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) III provided support for Dr. Benson’s contributions and for the assistance provided by students at the University of Wisconsin-Madison through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC01-06EW07053. CETCO provided the GCLs used in the study. Mr. Chris Athanassopoulos of Hunter College provided technical information.

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Go to Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
Volume 145Issue 4April 2019

History

Received: Dec 23, 2016
Accepted: Aug 17, 2018
Published online: Feb 8, 2019
Published in print: Apr 1, 2019
Discussion open until: Jul 8, 2019

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Nazli Yesiller, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE [email protected]
Director, Global Waste Research Institute, California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (corresponding author). Email: [email protected]
James L. Hanson, Ph.D., M.ASCE [email protected]
P.E.
Professor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA 93407. Email: [email protected]
Jacob L. Risken, A.M.ASCE [email protected]
P.E.
Project Engineer, Group Delta Consultants, 32 Mauchly, Suite B, Irvine, CA 92618. Email: [email protected]
Craig H. Benson, Ph.D., F.ASCE [email protected]
P.E.
Dean and Hamilton Professor, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904. Email: [email protected]
Tarek Abichou, Ph.D., M.ASCE [email protected]
P.E.
Professor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL 32310. Email: [email protected]
Jenner B. Darius [email protected]
Project Engineer, Suffolk Construction, Phillip’s Point West Tower, 777 S Flagler Dr., #1400, West Palm Beach, FL 33401. Email: [email protected]

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