The book consists of 29 chapters on different topics which do not follow a logical sequence. Therefore it is not a handbook of engineering hydrology in a typical sense. Nevertheless, the editor deserves to be complimented for assembling a broad array of chapters from around the world. The chapter authors are known for their contributions.
The first chapter is on anthropocenic aquifers. It first provides a discussion on the understanding anthropocene, then discusses South African hydrology, presents possible solutions to anthropocenic aquifers with a case study, and the future of anthropocenic aquifers.
Chapter 2 deals with artificial recharge experiences in semiarid areas. It discusses seawater intrusion and saline groundwater, artificial recharge techniques in semiarid areas, and Tunisia’s experience in artificial recharge.
Disinfection of water and nanotechnology is the theme of Chapter 3. The chapter describes water and wastewater pathogens including bacteria, viruses, protozoan and helminths; disinfection of water by chemical agents, physical agents, mechanical tools, and radiation; and nanotechnology and water disinfection by silver, chitosan, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes. The chapter is concluded with a case study.
Chapter 4 deals with environmental engineering for water and sanitation systems. Starting with a discussion of rain, surface water and uses of water, it goes on to discuss integrated water resources management including principles, benefits and challenges; water supply engineering, including collection and conveyance of water, supply treatment and advanced water treatment; sanitary engineering with layout of sanitary works; and waste water systems.
The focus of Chapter 5 is on environmental flows. It describes hydrological methods, hydraulic rating methods, habitat simulation methods and holistic methods for environmental flow assessment. A case study on typical rivers in Urmia Lake basin, Iran, concludes the chapter.
Environmental nanotechnology is presented in Chapter 6. It presents top-down and bottom-up methods for production of nanoparticles and nanomaterials; environmental monitoring and sensing, remediation and treatment, sustainable products and resource saving as benefits of nanotechnology for the environment; risk of nanotechnology encompassing fate of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in air, the fate of ENMs in water, and biodegradation and chemical transformation of ENMs; and case studies on applications of nanoparticles and the environment.
Chapter 7 is on the formation of ecological risks on plain reservoirs. It discusses risks from heat and chemical pollution using the water balance method, chemical balance method and heat balance; thermal pollution; and formation of reservoir banks.
Groundwater vulnerability is discussed in Chapter 8. Starting with the motivation and definitions of groundwater vulnerability, it deals with a conceptual framework for vulnerability; overlay and index methods, process-based methods, statistical methods, and uncertainty for modeling and mapping vulnerability; and climate variability and change.
Historical development of wastewater management is the theme of Chapter 9. It first describes early civilizations, including Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations, then Indus civilization, Minoan civilization, and Chinese and other southeast dynasties; and historical times and medieval times from the old world to modernity, pre-Columbian American societies, and modern times.
Hydrofracturing and environmental problems are presented in Chapter 10. Beginning with a historical perspective, it provides a global perspective; principles of hydrofracturing; equipment, instruments and materials for hydrofracturing; hydrofracturing processes; oil and gas well fracturing, hydrofracturing for groundwater well simulation, wastewater management, regulation, and control; potential environmental and health impacts; and benefits and demerits.
Modeling of wetland systems is presented in Chapter 11. Beginning with a discussion of hydrologic modeling, it discusses black-box models and process-based models for water quality modeling; uncertainty and sensitivity analyses; and quantity and quality data requirements, design of monitoring systems, and accounting for seasonality.
Chapter 12 deals with modifications in the hydrological cycle. It discusses methods for quick disposal of floodwater, spreading of water for leaching, artificial groundwater recharge, low-impact development; and a case study illustrating the effect of floodwater diversion, effect of modification on river section, combined effect of floodwater diversion and modification in river section, effect of artificial recharge of groundwater, and effect of low-impact developments.
Non-point-source and water quality modeling is discussed in Chapter 13. Introducing nonpoint sources of contamination, hydrologic transport and kinetic reactions, it discusses lumped parameter watershed models and distributed parameter watershed models; one dimensional (1D) water quality models, two-dimensional (2D) water quality models, three-dimensional (3D) water quality models, contaminant transport, transformation, and fate submodels.
River systems managed for flood defense are discussed in Chapter 14. It discusses river systems, different methods for river management, flood behavior, flood mitigation in river basins, structural and nonstructural methods in river management, and a case study on flood defense in Iran.
Sediment pollution is discussed in Chapter 15. It discusses sediment and sediment pollution, sediment as a physical pollutant as well as a chemical pollutant, its impact on the nature of the water balance, control of sediment pollution, remediation of sediment pollution by removal and transport and treatment technology, and modeling pollutant transport in sediment load.
Chapter 16 reports on stormwater modeling and management. It discusses hydrologic cycle, rainfall, and flood characteristics, rainfall-runoff relationship, stormwater modeling, urban drainage design and modeling, and stormwater quality practice. Stormwater modeling and sustainable management in highly urbanized areas are discussed in Chapter 17. Presenting several modeling approaches, it goes on to discuss stormwater packages for sustainable management.
Integrated water resource management and sustainability are presented in Chapter 18. Discussing sustainable water resources management, it presents the concept of sustainable development along with the concept of integrated water resources management (IWRM) and its principles, and concludes the chapter with a case study on implementation of IWRM considering a conflict resolution perspective.
Chapter 19 deals with sustainable wastewater treatment. Discussing different types of sustainability and trade-offs and balancing, it presents a systems view along with indicators and assessment methods, and concludes with sustainable wastewater management strategies.
Tourism and river environments are dealt with in Chapter 20. Starting with water viability and tourism industry, it discusses river environmental hydrology, river ecology, river system and the tourism perspective, links between river and tourism, and a case study of Ortkand River tourism region in Iran.
Transboundary river basin management is dealt with in Chapter 21. Starting with rules for international rivers—Helsinki rules, Dublin principles, and Kyoto protocol—it presents the hydrologist’s rule and discusses a case study in Africa. Then it presents environmental impacts of dams and watershed management.
Chapter 22 discusses transboundary water resources management. Starting with hydrological interdependence, it presents the conflict-cooperation problem, transboundary water resources as drivers of development, integrated approaches to transboundary water management and the preponderance of water silos, and rule of multiple actors in transboundary water resources management.
A case study on updating the hydrological knowledge is the subject of Chapter 23. Introducing the Pampean Plain (Argentina Republic), it discusses extreme hydrological events in Buenos Aires province, Oriental Republic of Uruguay, Andes mountain range (Argentina Republic), and Comahue region (Argentina Republic).
Water governance is discussed in Chapter 24. It deals with challenges of governance, how governance works, expectation from a system of rules, redefining system rules, tasks of governance, and changing individual behavior.
Water pollution control using low-cost natural waste is the theme of Chapter 25. It deals with pollutants, adsorption, adsorbent, and natural and low-cost wastes as adsorbents, and is concluded with a case study.
Chapter 26 discuses water resources assessment in a river basin using arc view soil water assessment tool (AVSWAT) model. Providing background information, it presents stages in water resources assessment, the role of geographical information systems (GIS) in water resources assessment, the role of digital elevation models (DEM) in water resource assessment, soil water assessment tool (SWAT) and AVSWAT, and application of AVSWAT.
Water scarcity is dealt with in Chapter 27. Discussing a conceptual background of water scarcity, it presents issues and contemporary challenges, global water scarcity, causes of water scarcity, water scarcity indices, water scarcity mitigation, and water governance for scarcity management.
Chapter 28 discusses concepts, measurement methods, and operationalization of water security. Presenting water security as an evolving concept, it discusses water availability, water vulnerability, water accessibility, and water sustainability, measurement of water security, operationalization of water security, climate change and water security, water security and preparedness, and threats and opportunities.
Chapter 29, which is the last chapter, deals with water supplies and public health and safety. Providing a historical perspective on water and infectious diseases, it deals with physical and chemical properties of water, criteria for selection and acquisition of a water supply, sources of potable water, municipal water treatment, and case studies on potable water quality and safety issues in eastern Massachusetts.
The book covers a broad territory, and will therefore be a useful reference to a diverse community, including graduate students, faculty members, and water resources professionals.