Technical Papers
Oct 3, 2016

# Model Predictive Control for Water Level Control in the Case of Spills

Publication: Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
Volume 143, Issue 3

## Abstract

Model predictive control (MPC) is one of the most popular control techniques that has been widely used in many fields of water resources management, such as canal control for drainage, irrigation, and navigation. MPC uses an internal mathematical model to describe system dynamics over a given prediction horizon and then minimizes a hard-constrained optimization problem based on actual objectives. Due to the use of hard constraints, the optimization problem may occasionally be infeasible. A compromise is sometimes made to look for a feasible solution by softening the hard constraints, which means that the limit on water levels or flows is allowed to be violated to a certain extent. For example, water in a canal may go above the top of a dike during a high-discharge event, resulting in a spill. This amount of spilling water leaves the water system and does not flow back, which therefore should be deducted in the mathematical model of the water system. To deal with this spill, past studies often utilized a hybrid model and an integer optimization. However, the system in the hybrid model is usually nonlinear and nonsmooth, especially when it transits from one discrete state to another. In this paper, an alternative way is proposed to link the spill with the softened constraint, still maintaining the linearity of the water system. Results show that the proposed way to tackle the spilling water is easy to implement and the water level is more accurately regulated around the setpoint in a canal control problem.

## Acknowledgments

The initial idea of the paper came from a discussion with Dr.ir. Peter-Jules van Overloop a few days before he passed way. The authors appreciate all his deep kindness and contributions for the canal control society. The authors also would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their careful reading and insightful comments.

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## Information & Authors

### Information

#### Published In

Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
Volume 143Issue 3March 2017

#### History

Accepted: Aug 24, 2016
Published online: Oct 3, 2016
Published in print: Mar 1, 2017
Discussion open until: Mar 3, 2017

### Authors

#### Affiliations

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Pillar of Engineering Systems and Design, Singapore Univ. of Technology and Design, 8 Somapah Rd., Singapore 487372; formerly, Dept. of Water Management, Delft Univ. of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CD, Delft, Netherlands (corresponding author). E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Boran Ekin Aydin [email protected]
Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Water Management, Delft Univ. of Technology, 2628 CD, Delft, Netherlands. E-mail: [email protected]
Rudy R. Negenborn [email protected]
Associate Professor, Dept. of Maritime and Transport Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology, 2628 CD, Delft, Netherlands. E-mail: [email protected]
Nick van de Giesen [email protected]
Professor, Dept. of Water Management, Delft Univ. of Technology, 2628 CD, Delft, Netherlands. E-mail: [email protected]
José María Maestre [email protected]
Associate Professor, Dept. of Engineering of Systems and Automatics, Univ. of Seville, 41092 Seville, Spain. E-mail: [email protected]

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