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Technical Papers
Nov 21, 2017

Force-Based Frame Element Implementation for Real-Time Hybrid Simulation Using Explicit Direct Integration Algorithms

Publication: Journal of Structural Engineering
Volume 144, Issue 2

Abstract

Existing state determination procedures for force-based finite elements use either an iterative scheme at the element level or a noniterative scheme at the element level that relies on an iterative solution algorithm for the global equilibrium equations. The former cannot ensure convergence in real-time computations, whereas the latter requires an implicit direct integration algorithm; therefore, these procedures are not applicable to real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) utilizing an explicit direct integration algorithm. A new procedure is developed based on a fixed number of iterations and an unconditionally stable explicit model-based integration algorithm. If the maximum number of iterations is reached, element resisting forces are corrected to re-establish compatibility, and unbalanced section forces are carried over to and corrected in the next time step. This procedure is used in the numerical simulation and RTHS of an earthquake-excited two-story reinforced concrete building. Results show that an accurate solution can be obtained even without performing any iteration. The influence of the model-based parameters of the integration algorithm on the stability and accuracy of the RTHS is also studied.

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Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the financial support provided by the P. C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science (RCEAS) fellowship and the Gibson fellowship awarded to the first author through the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lehigh University. The testing was performed at the NHERI Lehigh Experimental Facility, whose operation is supported by the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement No. CMMI-1520765. The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor.

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Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Go to Journal of Structural Engineering
Journal of Structural Engineering
Volume 144Issue 2February 2018

History

Received: Oct 19, 2016
Accepted: Jul 14, 2017
Published online: Nov 21, 2017
Published in print: Feb 1, 2018
Discussion open until: Apr 21, 2018

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Authors

Affiliations

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, India (corresponding author). ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2065-2589. E-mail: [email protected]
James M. Ricles [email protected]
Bruce G. Johnston Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA 18015. E-mail: [email protected]

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