Using the water source as a factor, a typology of residential irrigation water users was developed by segmenting 3,310 Floridians who used irrigation by their irrigation water source (i.e., well water, reclaimed water, and city water). Based on three years of survey data, there was a moderate association between living in a homeowners’ association and using city or reclaimed water for irrigation. There was an association between the water source and engagement in nine conservation behaviors. Well water users were less likely to use recycled water, use a rain sensor, calibrate their sprinklers, and use smart irrigation controls. Reclaimed water users were more likely to use recycled water and use a rain sensor and also less likely to have retrofitted a portion of the landscape so that it is not irrigated and have turned off zones or capped irrigation heads for established plants. City water users had the strongest personal and social norms surrounding water conservation, although this did not translate into conservation as the theory indicates it should have. The findings reveal that identifying the irrigation water source can provide meaningful insights into outdoor water use and should be integrated into residential water conservation interventions.
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Water Source as a Driver of Landscape Irrigation Conservation Behavior: A Statewide Florida Study
Water Scarcity Effects on Equitable Water Distribution and Land Use in a Major Irrigation Project—Case Study in India
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage EngineeringFebruary 2008
Heterogeneous Residential Water and Energy Linkages and Implications for Conservation and Management
Journal of Water Resources Planning and ManagementDecember 2012
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, Pennsylvania State Univ., 204A Ferguson Bldg., University Park, PA 16802. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5809-8854
Water Resources Regional Specialized Agent, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Univ. of Florida, 2199 South Rock Rd., Ft. Pierce, FL 34945.
Received: April 23, 2019
Accepted: January 30, 2020
Published online: May 27, 2020
©2020 American Society of Civil Engineers