On Tuesday, May 28, scheduled routine maintenance may cause intermittent connectivity issues which could impact e-commerce, registration, and single sign-on. Thank you for your patience.

Abstract

This paper presents a practical approach to adaptive management of dam risk based on robust decision-making strategies coupled with estimation of climate scenario probabilities. The proposed methodology, called multi-prior weighted scenarios ranking, consists of a series of steps from risk estimation for current and future situations through definition of the consensus sequence of risk reduction measures to be implemented. This represents a supporting tool for dam owners and safety practitioners in making decisions for managing dams or prioritizing long-term investments using a cost-benefit approach. This methodology is applied to the case study of a Spanish dam under the effects of climate change. Several risk reduction measures are proposed and their impacts are analyzed. The application of the methodology allows for identifying the optimal sequence of implementation measures that overcomes uncertainty from the diversity of available climate scenarios by prioritizing measures that reduce future accumulated risks at lower costs. This work proves that such a methodology helps address uncertainty that arises from multiple climate scenarios while adopting a cost-benefit approach that optimizes economic resources in dam risk management.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

Data Availability Statement

Some data, models, or code generated or used during the study are proprietary or confidential in nature and may only be provided with restrictions:
Risk models: confidential.
Risk model results: confidential.
Code R for the calculation of risk reduction indicators: provided with restrictions.

References

Amodio, S., A. D’Ambrosio, and R. Siciliano. 2016. “Accurate algorithms for identifying the median ranking when dealing with weak and partial rankings under the Kemeny axiomatic approach.” Eur. J. Oper. Res. 249 (2): 667–676. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2015.08.048.
ANCOLD. 2003. Guidelines on risk assessment. Hobart, Australia: Australian National Committee on Large Dams.
Ardiles, L., D. Sanz, P. Moreno, E. Jenaro, J. Fleitz, and I. Escuder-Bueno. 2011. “Risk assessment and management for 26 Dams operated by the Duero River Authority (Spain).” In Proc., 6th Int. Conf. on Dam Engineering, edited by C. Pina, E. Portela, and J. P. Gomes. Singapore: CI-premier Pte Ltd.
Baecher, G. B., M. E. Paté, and R. De Neufville. 1980. “Risk of dam failure in benefit-cost analysis.” Water Resour. Res. 16 (3): 449–456. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR016i003p00449.
Bowles, D. 2004. ALARP evaluation using cost effectiveness and disproportionality to justify risk reduction, 89–106. Hobart, Australia: Australian National Committee on Large Dams.
Bowles, D., A. Brown, A. Hughes, M. Morris, P. Sayers, A. Topple, M. Wallis, and K. Gardiner. 2013. Guide to risk assessment for reservoir safety management, Volume 2: Methodology and supporting information. Bristol, UK: Environment Agency.
Bowles, D. S. 2000. “Advances in the practice and use of portfolio risk assessment.” ANCOLD Bull. 117 (3): 21–32.
Burke, M., J. Dykema, D. Lobell, E. Miguel, and S. Satyanath. 2011. Incorporating climate uncertainty into estimates of climate change impacts, with applications to U.S. and African agriculture. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
CH2018. 2018. CH2018—Climate scenarios for Switzerland. Zurich: National Centre for Climate Services.
Chamberlain, G. 2000. “Econometric applications of max min expected utility.” J. Appl. Econ. 15 (6): 625–644. https://doi.org/10.1002/jae.583.
Chernet, H. H., K. Alfredsen, and G. H. Midttømme. 2014. “Safety of hydropower dams in a changing climate.” J. Hydrol. Eng. 19 (3): 569–582. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000836.
Choi, O., and A. Fischer. 2003. “The impacts of socioeconomic development and climate change on severe weather catastrophe losses: Mid-Atlantic region (MAR) and the U.S.” Clim. Change 58 (1–2): 149–170. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023459216609.
Christensen, J., E. Kjellström, F. Giorgi, G. Lenderink, and M. Rummukainen. 2010. “Weight assignment in regional climate models.” Clim. Res. 44 (2–3): 179–194. https://doi.org/10.3354/cr00916.
Confederación Hidrográfica del Duero. 2015. Plan Hidrológico de la parte española de la demarcación hidrográfica del Duero. Valladolid, Spain: Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment.
Danthine, J.-P., and J. B. Donaldson. 2015. “Making choices in risky situations.” In Intermediate financial theory, 55–86. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Davis, J. B., D. W. Hands, and U. Mäki. 1998. The handbook of economic methodology. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Dessai, S., and M. Hulme. 2004. “Does climate adaptation policy need probabilities?” Clim. Policy 4 (2): 107–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2004.9685515.
Eggleston, H. S. 2006. “National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, and Chikyū Kankyō Senryaku Kenkyū Kikan.” In Proc., IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Emond, E. J., and D. W. Mason. 2002. “A new rank correlation coefficient with application to the consensus ranking problem.” J. Multi-Criteria Decis. Anal. 11 (1): 17–28. https://doi.org/10.1002/mcda.313.
European Environment Agency. 2017. Climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe 2016: An indicator-based report. Washington, DC: European Environment Agency.
Farnoud Hassanzadeh, F., and O. Milenkovic. 2014. “An axiomatic approach to constructing distances for rank comparison and aggregation.” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 60 (10): 6417–6439. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIT.2014.2345760.
Ferson, S., and L. R. Ginzburg. 1996. “Different methods are needed to propagate ignorance and variability.” Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 54 (2–3): 133–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0951-8320(96)00071-3.
Fluixá-Sanmartín, J., L. Altarejos-García, A. Morales-Torres, and I. Escuder-Bueno. 2018. “Review article: Climate change impacts on dam safety.” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 18 (9): 2471–2488. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-18-2471-2018.
Fluixá-Sanmartín, J., I. Escuder-Bueno, A. Morales-Torres, and J. T. Castillo-Rodríguez. 2020. “Comprehensive decision-making approach for managing time dependent dam risks.” Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 203 (Nov): 107100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2020.107100.
Fluixá-Sanmartín, J., A. Morales-Torres, I. Escuder-Bueno, and J. Paredes-Arquiola. 2019. “Quantification of climate change impact on dam failure risk under hydrological scenarios: A case study from a Spanish dam.” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 19 (10): 2117–2139. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-19-2117-2019.
Garlappi, L., T. Wang, and R. Uppal. 2004. “Portfolio selection with parameter and model uncertainty: A multi-prior approach.” SSRN Electron. J. 20 (1): 41–81. https://doi.org/10.1093/rfs/hhl003.
Gersonius, B., T. Morselt, L. van Nieuwenhuijzen, R. Ashley, and C. Zevenbergen. 2012. “How the failure to account for flexibility in the economic analysis of flood risk and coastal management strategies can result in maladaptive decisions.” J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng. 138 (5): 386–393. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WW.1943-5460.0000142.
Giorgi, F., C. Jones, and G. R. Asrar. 2009. “Addressing climate information needs at the regional level: The CORDEX framework.” WMO Bulletin 58 (3): 175–183.
Giorgi, F., and L. O. Mearns. 2002. “Calculation of average, uncertainty range, and reliability of regional climate changes from AOGCM simulations via the ‘Reliability Ensemble Averaging’ (REA) method.” J. Clim. 15 (10): 1141–1158. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015%3C1141:COAURA%3E2.0.CO;2.
Haasnoot, M., J. H. Kwakkel, W. E. Walker, and J. ter Maat. 2013. “Dynamic adaptive policy pathways: A method for crafting robust decisions for a deeply uncertain world.” Global Environ. Change 23 (2): 485–498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.12.006.
Haasnoot, M., H. Middelkoop, A. Offermans, E. Beek, and W. P. A. Deursen. 2012. “Exploring pathways for sustainable water management in river deltas in a changing environment.” Clim. Change 115 (3–4): 795–819. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-012-0444-2.
Hallegatte, S. 2009. “Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change.” Global Environ. Change 19 (2): 240–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.12.003.
Hartford, D. N. D., and G. B. Baecher. 2004. Risk and uncertainty in dam safety. London: Thomas Telford.
Harvey, H., J. Hall, and R. Peppé. 2012. “Computational decision analysis for flood risk management in an uncertain future.” J. Hydroinf. 14 (3): 537–561. https://doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2011.055.
Hawkins, E., and R. Sutton. 2009. “The potential to narrow uncertainty in regional climate predictions.” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90 (8): 1095–1108. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009BAMS2607.1.
Heal, G., and A. Millner. 2014. “Reflections: Uncertainty and decision making in climate change economics.” Rev. Environ. Econ. Policy 8 (1): 120–137. https://doi.org/10.1093/reep/ret023.
HSE. 2001. Reducing risks, protecting people: HSE’s decision-making process. Sudbury, ON: Health and Safety Executive Books.
ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams). 2005. Risk assessment in dam safety management. A reconnaissance of benefits, methods and current applications. Hobart, Australia: ICOLD.
International Hydropower Association. 2019. Hydropower sector climate resilience guide. London: International Hydropower Association.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2012. Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: IPCC.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2014. Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
iPresas. 2019. iPresas Calc. User guide. Valencia, Spain: iPresas.
Jones, R. N. 2000. “Managing uncertainty in climate change projections—Issues for impact assessment.” Clim. Change 45 (3–4): 403–419. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005551626280.
Kaplan, S. 1997. “The words of risk analysis.” Risk Anal. 17 (4): 407–417. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.1997.tb00881.x.
Kemeny, J. G., and J. L. Snell. 1962. “Preference rankings an axiomatic approach.” In Mathematical models in the social sciences, 9–23. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kendall, M. G. 1938. “A new measure of rank correlation.” Biometrika 30 (1–2): 81–93. https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/30.1-2.81.
Kendall, M. G., and J. D. Gibbons. 1990. Rank correlation methods. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Khatri, K., and K. Vairavamoorthy. 2011. “A new approach of decision making under uncertainty for selecting a robust strategy: A case of water pipes failure.” In Vulnerability, uncertainty, and risk, 953–962. Reston, VA: ASCE.
Kingston, D. G., M. C. Todd, R. G. Taylor, J. R. Thompson, and N. W. Arnell. 2009. “Uncertainty in the estimation of potential evapotranspiration under climate change.” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36: L20403. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040267.
Knutti, R., G. Abramowitz, M. Collins, V. Eyring, P. J. Gleckler, B. Hewitson, and L. Mearns. 2010a. “Good practice guidance paper on assessing and combining multi model climate projections.” In Meeting report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Expert Meeting on Assessing and Combining Multi Model Climate Projections. Bern, Switzerland: Univ. of Bern.
Knutti, R., R. Furrer, C. Tebaldi, J. Cermak, and G. A. Meehl. 2010b. “Challenges in combining projections from multiple climate models.” J. Clim. 23 (10): 2739–2758. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3361.1.
Lempert, R. J., D. G. Groves, S. W. Popper, and S. C. Bankes. 2006. “A general, analytic method for generating robust strategies and narrative scenarios.” Manage. Sci. 52 (4): 514–528. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1050.0472.
Lempert, R. J., S. W. Popper, and S. C. Bankes. 2003. Shaping the next one hundred years: New methods for quantitative, long-term policy analysis. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Levitan, S., and R. Thomson. 2009. “The application of expected-utility theory to the choice of investment channels in a defined-contribution retirement fund.” ASTIN Bull. 39 (2): 615–647. https://doi.org/10.2143/AST.39.2.2044651.
Leyva López, J. C., and P. A. Alvarez Carrillo. 2015. “Accentuating the rank positions in an agreement index with reference to a consensus order.” Int. Trans. Oper. Res. 22 (6): 969–995. https://doi.org/10.1111/itor.12146.
Lind, N. 2007. “Discounting risks in the far future.” Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 92 (10): 1328–1332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2006.09.001.
Luo, K., Y. Xu, B. Zhang, and H. Zhang. 2018. “Creating an acceptable consensus ranking for group decision making.” J. Comb. Optim. 36 (1): 307–328. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10878-016-0086-9.
Mastrandrea, M. D., et al. 2010. Guidance note for lead authors of the IPCC fifth Assessment Report on Consistent Treatment of Uncertainties. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Meila, M., K. Phadnis, A. Patterson, and J. A. Bilmes. 2012. “Consensus ranking under the exponential model.” Preprint, submitted June 20, 2012. http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.5265.
Miao, D. Y., Y. P. Li, G. H. Huang, Z. F. Yang, and C. H. Li. 2014. “Optimization model for planning regional water resource systems under uncertainty.” J. Water Resour. Plann. Manage. 140 (2): 238–249. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000303.
Minville, M., F. Brissette, and R. Leconte. 2010. “Impacts and uncertainty of climate change on water resource management of the Peribonka River system (Canada).” J. Water Resour. Plann. Manage. 136 (3): 376–385. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000041.
Morales-Torres, A., I. Escuder-Bueno, A. Serrano-Lombillo, and J. T. Castillo Rodríguez. 2019. “Dealing with epistemic uncertainty in risk-informed decision making for dam safety management.” Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 191 (Nov): 106562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2019.106562.
Morales-Torres, A., A. Serrano-Lombillo, I. Escuder-Bueno, and L. Altarejos-García. 2016. “The suitability of risk reduction indicators to inform dam safety management.” Struct. Infrastruct. Eng. 12 (11): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/15732479.2015.1136830.
National Research Council. 2009. Informing decisions in a changing climate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Neumayer, E., and F. Barthel. 2011. “Normalizing economic loss from natural disasters: A global analysis.” Global Environ. Change 21 (1): 13–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.10.004.
New, M., and M. Hulme. 2000. “Representing uncertainty in climate change scenarios: A Monte-Carlo approach.” Integr. Assess. 1 (3): 203–213. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019144202120.
Noble, I. R., S. Huq, Y. A. Anokhin, J. Carmin, D. Goudou, F. P. Lansigan, B. Osman-Elasha, and A. Villamizar. 2014. “Adaptation needs and options.” In Climate change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects, 833–868. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Palmieri, A., F. Shah, and A. Dinar. 2001. “Economics of reservoir sedimentation and sustainable management of dams.” J. Environ. Manage. 61 (2): 149–163. https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.2000.0392.
Park, T., C. Kim, and H. Kim. 2014. “Valuation of drainage infrastructure improvement under climate change using real options.” Water Resour. Manage. 28 (2): 445–457. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-013-0492-z.
Pate-Cornell, E. 2002. “Risk and uncertainty analysis in government safety decisions.” Risk Anal. 22 (3): 633–646. https://doi.org/10.1111/0272-4332.00043.
Pittock, A. B., R. N. Jones, and C. D. Mitchell. 2001. “Probabilities will help us plan for climate change.” Nature 413 (6853): 249. https://doi.org/10.1038/35095194.
Plaia, A., S. Buscemi, and M. Sciandra. 2019. “A new position weight correlation coefficient for consensus ranking process without ties.” Statistics 8 (1): e236. https://doi.org/10.1002/sta4.236.
Ramsey, F. P. 1926. “Truth and probability.” In Foundations of mathematics and other logical essays, edited by R. B. Braithwaite, 156–198. New York: Harcourt.
Roach, T., Z. Kapelan, R. Ledbetter, and M. Ledbetter. 2016. “Comparison of robust optimization and info-gap methods for water resource management under deep uncertainty.” J. Water Resour. Plann. Manage. 142 (9): 04016028. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000660.
Savage, L. J. 1972. The foundations of statistics. New York: Dover Publications.
Schneider, S. H. 2003. “Imaginable surprise.” In Handbook of weather, climate, and water: atmospheric chemistry, hydrology, and societal impacts, edited by T. D. Potter and B. R. Colman. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Seneviratne, S. I., T. Corti, E. L. Davin, M. Hirschi, E. B. Jaeger, I. Lehner, B. Orlowsky, and A. J. Teuling. 2010. “Investigating soil moisture–climate interactions in a changing climate: A review.” Earth Sci. Rev. 99 (3–4): 125–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.02.004.
Serrano-Lombillo, A., I. Escuder-Bueno, and L. Altarejos-García. 2012. Use of risk models for evaluation of risk reduction measures for dams. Paris: Commission Internationale des Grands Barrages.
Serrano-Lombillo, A., A. Morales-Torres, I. Escuder-Bueno, and L. Altarejos-García. 2013. “Sharing experience for safe and sustainable water storage.” In Proc., 9th ICOLD European Club Symp. Bergamo, Italy: Italian Committee on Large Dams.
SPANCOLD (Spanish National Committee on Large Dams). 2012. “Risk analysis applied to dam safety.” In Technical guide on operation of dams and reservoirs. Madrid, Spain: SPANCOLD.
Spence, C. M., and C. M. Brown. 2018. “Decision analytic approach to resolving divergent climate assumptions in water resources planning.” J. Water Resour. Plann. Manage. 144 (9): 04018054. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WR.1943-5452.0000939.
Street, R. B., and C. Nilsson. 2014. “Introduction to the use of uncertainties to inform adaptation decisions.” In Adapting to an uncertain climate, 1–16. Berlin: Springer.
Swart, R. J., P. Raskin, and J. Robinson. 2004. “The problem of the future: Sustainability science and scenario analysis.” Global Environ. Change 14 (2): 137–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2003.10.002.
USACE. 2011. Safety of dams—Policy and procedures. Washington, DC: USACE.
USACE. 2016. Guidance for incorporating climate change impacts to inland hydrology in civil works studies, designs, and projects. Washington, DC: USACE.
USBR (US Bureau of Reclamation). 2011. “Dam safety public protection guidelines.” In A risk framework to support dam safety decision-making. Washington, DC: USBR.
USBR (US Bureau of Reclamation). 2014. Climate change adaptation strategy. Washington, DC: USBR.
USBR (US Bureau of Reclamation). 2016. Climate change adaptation strategy: 2016 progress report. Washington, DC: USBR.
von Neumann, J., and O. Morgenstern. 1944. Theory of games and economic behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Walker, W., M. Haasnoot, and J. Kwakkel. 2013. “Adapt or Perish: A review of planning approaches for adaptation under deep uncertainty.” Sustainability 5 (3): 955–979. https://doi.org/10.3390/su5030955.
Walker, W. E., S. A. Rahman, and J. Cave. 2001. “Adaptive policies, policy analysis, and policy-making.” Eur. J. Oper. Res. 128 (2): 282–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(00)00071-0.
Walsh, J., et al. 2014. “Our changing climate.” In Climate change impacts in the United States: The third national climate assessment, 19–67. Washington, DC: U.S. Global Change Research Program.
Weigel, A. P., R. Knutti, M. A. Liniger, and C. Appenzeller. 2010. “Risks of model weighting in multimodel climate projections.” J. Clim. 23 (15): 4175–4191. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3594.1.
Wilby, R. L., and S. Dessai. 2010. “Robust adaptation to climate change.” Weather 65 (7): 180–185. https://doi.org/10.1002/wea.543.
Willows, R. I., and R. K. Connell. 2003. Climate adaptation: Risk, uncertainty and decision-making. Oxford, UK: UKCIP.
Zhang, S. X., and V. Babovic. 2012. “A real options approach to the design and architecture of water supply systems using innovative water technologies under uncertainty.” J. Hydroinf. 14 (1): 13–29. https://doi.org/10.2166/hydro.2011.078.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Go to Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management
Volume 147Issue 4April 2021

History

Received: Mar 22, 2020
Accepted: Oct 28, 2020
Published online: Feb 15, 2021
Published in print: Apr 1, 2021
Discussion open until: Jul 15, 2021

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

Authors

Affiliations

Hydrologist and Hydraulics Specialist, Centre de Recherche sur l’Environnement Alpin (CREALP), 1950 Sion, Switzerland (corresponding author). ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7123-0765. Email: [email protected]
Ignacio Escuder-Bueno [email protected]
Professor, Instituto Universitario de Investigación de Ingeniería del Agua y Medio Ambiente, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain. Email: [email protected]
Adrián Morales-Torres [email protected]
Chief Technical Officer, iPresas Risk Analysis, 46023 Valencia, Spain. Email: [email protected]
Jesica Tamara Castillo-Rodríguez [email protected]
Researcher, Vice-Rectorate for Research, Innovation and Transfer, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain. Email: [email protected]

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

Citations

Download citation

If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click Download.

Cited by

View Options

Get Access

Access content

Please select your options to get access

Log in/Register Log in via your institution (Shibboleth)
ASCE Members: Please log in to see member pricing

Purchase

Save for later Information on ASCE Library Cards
ASCE Library Cards let you download journal articles, proceedings papers, and available book chapters across the entire ASCE Library platform. ASCE Library Cards remain active for 24 months or until all downloads are used. Note: This content will be debited as one download at time of checkout.

Terms of Use: ASCE Library Cards are for individual, personal use only. Reselling, republishing, or forwarding the materials to libraries or reading rooms is prohibited.
ASCE Library Card (5 downloads)
$105.00
Add to cart
ASCE Library Card (20 downloads)
$280.00
Add to cart
Buy Single Article
$35.00
Add to cart

Get Access

Access content

Please select your options to get access

Log in/Register Log in via your institution (Shibboleth)
ASCE Members: Please log in to see member pricing

Purchase

Save for later Information on ASCE Library Cards
ASCE Library Cards let you download journal articles, proceedings papers, and available book chapters across the entire ASCE Library platform. ASCE Library Cards remain active for 24 months or until all downloads are used. Note: This content will be debited as one download at time of checkout.

Terms of Use: ASCE Library Cards are for individual, personal use only. Reselling, republishing, or forwarding the materials to libraries or reading rooms is prohibited.
ASCE Library Card (5 downloads)
$105.00
Add to cart
ASCE Library Card (20 downloads)
$280.00
Add to cart
Buy Single Article
$35.00
Add to cart

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Copy the content Link

Share with email

Email a colleague

Share