Chapter
May 18, 2023

Deep Neural Networks for ENSO Prediction in the Niño 3.4 and Niño 1+2 Regions

Publication: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2023

ABSTRACT

Forecasting the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is one of the most challenging tasks because ENSO events show large differences in their amplitude, temporal evolution, and spatial pattern. This research discusses a deep neural network model that integrates convolutional short-term and long-term memory (ConvLSTM) to forecast the patterns of sea surface temperature that represent the evolution of ENSO over different time horizons with simultaneous space-time sequences in the Niño 3.4 and Niño 1+2 regions. Monthly gridded sea surface temperature and anomaly index data were used in El Niño regions for the period 1854–2021. In general, the methodology includes the sea surface temperature (SST) normalization of the tropical Pacific, the creation and selection of the architecture of the deep neural network model, and the training and validation. Furthermore, the forecast and evaluation of the SST and SST anomalies in space-time with the El Niño of 1982/1983 and 1997/1998 and with different time horizons for the test stage were developed. The results show a good model performance with ENSO data for El Niño 1982/1983 (training) and El Niño 1997/1998 (validation) in space and time, and with climatic indices for regions 3.4 and 1+2. The model performance was evaluated using statistical metrics of observed and forecasted data over six months in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (latitude 10°S–10°N and longitude 140°E–80°W). In general, all the metrics used to evaluate the accuracy and forecast of the model show a range from good to excellent for both El Niño regions in the six months of forecast.

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Go to World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2023
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2023
Pages: 307 - 316

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Published online: May 18, 2023

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Kennedy Richard Gomez-Tunque [email protected]
1Graduate Program in Water Resources Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Huancavelica, Lima, Peru. Email: [email protected]
Eusebio Ingol-Blanco [email protected]
2Graduate Program in Water Resources Engineering, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru. Email: [email protected]
Abel Mejia-Marcacuzco [email protected]
3Graduate Program in Water Resources Engineering, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru. Email: [email protected]
Eduardo Chávarri-Velarde [email protected]
4Graduate Program in Water Resources Engineering, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru. Email: [email protected]
Edwin Pino-Vargas [email protected]
5Dept. of Civil Engineering, Universidad Nacional Jorge Basadre Grohmann, Tacna, Peru. Email: [email protected]

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