Abstract

A holistic evaluation of a building’s environmental impact must include a thorough accounting of both its operating and embodied energies, inclusive of the influence of hazard-induced damage and repairs. Unfortunately, these considerations are notoriously absent in today’s practice owing to a traditionally segmented approach to the design process that has perpetuated interoperability challenges between existing commercial tools. In response to this and other limitations of existing approaches, this paper offers an integrated life-cycle assessment (iLCA) that (1) considers the effects of site-specific climate and exposure to wind and seismic hazards on a building’s embodied and operating energy, (2) adopts an assembly-based approach to reveal the specific components influencing performance outcomes, (3) accommodates both risk-neutral and risk-adverse perspectives, and (4) addresses interoperability challenges that limit access to the data stored within commercial building information models. The resulting iLCA is partitioned into a sustainability workflow, with modules dedicated to embodied and operating energy, and a resilience workflow, sequencing modules for hazard characterization, structural response, damage, and repair/loss. A custom parser leverages semantic technologies to efficiently extract geometry and material information from the underlying data structures of Revit building information models; this parser ultimately supplies the required building data to each module. A unifying probabilistic framework is then adopted to quantify life-cycle performance, in terms of repair costs and total (embodied and operating) energy, with emphasis placed on expanding the statistical descriptions of performance to support both risk-neutral and risk-averse decision-making. The iLCA is applied to a case study office building at two sites to demonstrate the effects of climate and wind and seismic hazards on the performance of specific components over different service lives, inclusive of potential performance variability due to hazard exposure. The framework is further leveraged to examine how different sources of uncertainty, or assumptions surrounding the quantification of this uncertainty, impact life-cycle performance estimates.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

Data Availability Statement

Some or all data, models, or code that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation (CMMI-1537652). The first author also recognizes the support of her NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE-1313583) and Dean’s Fellowship from the University of Notre Dame. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NSF. The authors further recognize the contributions of former graduate student Holly Ferguson and undergraduates Alexandria Gordon, Isabella Delgado, Thomas Walsh, and Christian Cullinan. The authors further appreciate the valuable feedback received through the review process.

References

ACI (American Concrete Institute). 2014. Building code requirements for structural concrete and commentary. ACI 318-14/ACI 318R-14. Farmington Hills, MI: American Concrete Institute.
Al-Ghamdi, S. G., and M. M. Bilec. 2016. “Green building rating systems and whole-building life cycle assessment: Comparative study of the existing assessment tools.” J. Archit. Eng. 23 (1): 04016015. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000222.
Alibrandi, U., and K. Mosalam. 2019. “Lifecycle multi criteria decision analysis of buildings using generalized expected utility.” In Handbook of sustainable and resilient infrastructure, 770–788. London: Routledge.
Alirezaei, M., M. Noori, O. Tatari, K. R. Mackie, and A. Elgamal. 2016. “BIM-based damage estimation of buildings under earthquake loading condition.” Procedia Eng. 145: 1051–1058. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.04.136.
Anand, C. K., and B. Amor. 2017. “Recent developments, future challenges and new research directions in LCA of buildings: A critical review.” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 67 (Jan): 408–416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.058.
Angeles, K., D. Patsialis, T. Kijewski-Correa, A. Taflanidis, C. F. Vardeman, and A. Buccellato. 2019. “Advancing resilient and sustainable buildings through a new normative workflow for integrated life-cycle assessments.” In Proc., Int. Conf. on Sustainable Infrastructure 2019: Leading Resilient Communities through the 21st Century, 652–659. Reston, VA: ASCE.
Angeles, K., D. Patsialis, T. Kijewski-Correa, A. Taflanidis, I. Vardeman, F. Charles, and A. Buccellato. 2018. “A new normative workflow for integrated life-cycle assessment.” In Proc., Int. Building Physics Conf. IBPC 2018. Syracuse, NY: International Association of Building Physics.
ASCE. 2016. Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures. ASCE 7-16. Reston, VA: ASCE.
ASCE. 2018. “ASCE grand challenge.” Accessed October 5, 2018. https://www.asce.org/grand-challenge/.
ATC (Applied Technology Council). 2019. “ATC hazards by location public application programming interface.” Accessed February 2, 2019. https://hazards.atcouncil.org/api.
Augusti, G., and M. Ciampoli. 2008. “Performance-based besign in risk assessment and reduction.” Probab. Eng. Mech. 23 (4): 496–508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.probengmech.2008.01.007.
Azari, R. 2014. “Integrated energy and environmental life cycle assessment of office building envelopes.” Energy Build. 82 (Oct): 156–162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.06.041.
Baker, J. W., and C. A. Cornell. 2008. “Uncertainty propagation in probabilistic seismic loss estimation.” Struct. Saf. 30 (3): 236–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2006.11.003.
Barbato, M., F. Petrini, V. U. Unnikrishnan, and M. Ciampoli. 2013. “Performance-based hurricane engineering (PBHE) framework.” Struct. Saf. 45 (Nov): 24–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2013.07.002.
Belleri, A., and A. Marini. 2016. “Does seismic risk affect the environmental impact of existing buildings?” Energy Build. 110 (Jan): 149–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.10.048.
Cha, E. J., and B. R. Ellingwood. 2013. “Seismic risk mitigation of building structures: The role of risk aversion.” Struct. Saf. 40 (Jan): 11–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2012.06.004.
Chen, X., and A. Kareem. 2005. “Proper orthogonal decomposition-based modeling, analysis, and simulation of dynamic wind load effects on structures.” J. Eng. Mech. 131 (4): 325–339. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2005)131:4(325).
Chhabra, J. P., V. Hasik, M. M. Bilec, and G. P. Warn. 2017. “Probabilistic assessment of the life-cycle environmental performance and functional life of buildings due to seismic events.” J. Archit. Eng. 24 (1): 04017035. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000284.
Cornell, C., and H. Krawinkler. 2000. “Progress and challenges in seismic performance assessment.” PEER Cent News 2000 3: 1–3.
De Wolf, C., F. Pomponi, and A. Moncaster. 2017. “Measuring embodied carbon dioxide equivalent of buildings: A review and critique of current industry practice.” Energy Build. 140 (Apr): 68–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.01.075.
Dixit, M. K., J. L. Fernández-Solís, S. Lavy, and C. H. Culp. 2012. “Need for an embodied energy measurement protocol for buildings: A review paper.” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 16 (6): 3730–3743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.021.
DOE (Department of Energy). 2011. 2011 buildings energy data book. Silver Spring, MD: D&R International.
DOE (Department of Energy). 2018. “Weather data for simulation.” Accessed October 5, 2018. https://energyplus.net/weather/simulation.
Dong, Y., and Y. Li. 2016. “Risk-based assessment of wood residential construction subjected to hurricane events considering indirect and environmental loss.” Sustainable Resilient Infrastruct. 1 (1–2): 46–62. https://doi.org/10.1080/23789689.2016.1179051.
Dong, Y., and Y. Li. 2017. “Evaluation of hurricane resilience of residential community considering a changing climate, social disruption cost, and environmental impact.” J. Archit. Eng. 23 (3): 04017008. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000256.
Ellingwood, B. R., and P. B. Tekie. 1999. “Wind load statistics for probability-based structural design.” J. Struct. Eng. 125 (4): 453–463. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1999)125:4(453).
Feese, C., Y. Li, and W. M. Bulleit. 2014. “Assessment of seismic damage of buildings and related environmental impacts.” J. Perform. Constr. Facil. 29 (4): 04014106. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000584.
FEMA. 2000. Prestandard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings. FEMA 356. Washington, DC: FEMA.
FEMA. 2012a. Seismic performance assessment of buildings. FEMA-P-58. Redwood City, CA: Applied Technology Council.
FEMA. 2012b. Seismic performance assessment of buildings, Volume 1—Methodology. FEMA P-58-1. Washington, DC: FEMA.
FEMA. 2012c. Seismic performance assessment of buildings, Volume 3—Performance assessment calculation tool (PACT). FEMA P-58-3.1. Washington, DC: FEMA.
Ferguson, H., C. Vardeman, and J. Nabrzyski. 2016a. “Linked data view methodology and application to BIM alignment and interoperability.” In Proc., 2016 IEEE Int. Conf. on Big Data (Big Data), 2626–2635. New York: IEEE.
Ferguson, H. T., A. Buccellato, S. Paolucci, N. Yu, I. Vardeman, and F. Charles. 2016b. “Green scale research tool for multi-criteria and multi-metric energy analysis performed during the architectural design process.” Preprint, submitted February 26, 2016. http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.08463.
Ferguson, H. T., C. F. Vardeman II, and A. P. Buccellato. 2015. “Capturing an architectural knowledge base utilizing rules engine integration for energy and environmental simulations.” In Proc., Symp. on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design, 67–74. San Diego: Society for Modeling and Simulation International.
Flint, M., L. Dhulipala, Y. Shahtaheri, H. Tahir, T. Ladipo, M. Eatherton, J. Irish, C. Olgun, G. Reichard, and A. Rodriguez-Marek. 2016. “Developing a decision framework for multi-hazard design of resilient, sustainable buildings.” In Proc., 1st Int. Conf. on Natural Hazards and Infrastructure (ICONHIC2016). Chania, Greece: National Technical Univ. of Athens.
Gencturk, B. 2013. “Life-cycle cost assessment of RC and ECC frames using structural optimization.” Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 42 (1): 61–79. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2193.
Gencturk, B., K. Hossain, and S. Lahourpour. 2016. “Life cycle sustainability assessment of RC buildings in seismic regions.” Eng. Struct. 110 (Mar): 347–362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.11.037.
Genz, A. 1992. “Numerical computation of multivariate normal probabilities.” J. Comput. Graphical Stat. 1 (2): 141–149.
Goda, K., and H. Hong. 2006. “Optimal seismic design considering risk attitude, societal tolerable risk level, and life quality criterion.” J. Struct. Eng. 132 (12): 2027–2035. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2006)132:12(2027).
Goulet, C. A., C. B. Haselton, J. Mitrani-Reiser, J. L. Beck, G. Deierlein, K. A. Porter, and J. P. Stewart. 2007. “Evaluation of the seismic performance of code-conforming reinforced-concrete frame building-From seismic hazard to collapse safety and economic losses.” Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 36 (13): 1973–1997. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.694.
Hammond, G., and C. C. Jones. 2008. Vol. 5 of Inventory of carbon and energy: ICE. Bath, UK: Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Bath.
Haselton, C. B., C. A. Goulet, J. Mitrani-Reiser, J. L. Beck, G. G. Deierlein, K. A. Porter, J. P. Stewart, and E. Taciroglu. 2008. An assessment to Benchmark the seismic performance of a code-conforming reinforced concrete moment-frame building. Berkeley, CA: Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.
Hasik, V., J. P. Chhabra, G. P. Warn, and M. M. Bilec. 2018. “Review of approaches for integrating loss estimation and life cycle assessment to assess impacts of seismic building damage and repair.” Eng. Struct. 175 (Nov): 123–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.08.011.
Ibn-Mohammed, T., R. Greenough, S. Taylor, L. Ozawa-Meida, and A. Acquaye. 2013. “Operational vs. embodied emissions in buildings—A review of current trends.” Energy Build. 66 (Nov): 232–245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.07.026.
Janowicz, K., F. Van Harmelen, J. A. Hendler, and P. Hitzler. 2015. “Why the data train needs semantic rails.” AI Magazine, March 25, 2015.
Kestner, D. M., J. Goupil, and E. Lorenz. 2010. Sustainability guidelines for the structural engineer. Reston, VA: ASCE.
Kopp, G. A., and Y. Chen. 2006. “Database-assisted design of low-rise buildings: Aerodynamic considerations for a practical interpolation scheme.” J. Struct. Eng. 132 (6): 909–917. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2006)132:6(909).
Kwon, D. K., A. Kareem, D. Kumar, and Y. Tamura. 2016. “A prototype online database-enabled design framework for wind analysis/design of low-rise buildings.” Front. Struct. Civ. Eng. 10 (1): 121–130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-015-0329-3.
Lagaros, N. D., and E. Magoula. 2013. “Life-cycle cost assessment of mid-rise and high-rise steel and steel–reinforced concrete composite minimum cost building designs.” Struct. Des. Tall Special Build. 22 (12): 954–974. https://doi.org/10.1002/tal.752.
Lamprou, A., G. Jia, and A. A. Taflanidis. 2013. “Life-cycle seismic loss estimation and global sensitivity analysis based on stochastic ground motion modeling.” Eng. Struct. 54: 192–206.
Lin, T., C. B. Haselton, and J. W. Baker. 2013. “Conditional spectrum-based ground motion selection. Part I: Hazard consistency for risk-based assessments.” Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 42 (12): 1847–1865. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2301.
Means, P., and A. Guggemos. 2015. “Framework for life cycle assessment (LCA) based environmental decision making during the conceptual design phase for commercial buildings.” Procedia Eng. 118: 802–812. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.08.517.
Menna, C., D. Asprone, F. Jalayer, A. Prota, and G. Manfredi. 2013. “Assessment of ecological sustainability of a building subjected to potential seismic events during its lifetime.” Int. J. Life Cycle Assess. 18 (2): 504–515. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-012-0477-9.
Moehle, J., and G. Deierlein. 2004. “A framework methodology for performance-based earthquake engineering.” In Proc., 13th World Conf. on Earthquake Engineering. Vancouver, Canada: 13 WCEE Secretariat.
Mosalam, K. M., U. Alibrandi, H. Lee, and J. Armengou. 2018. “Performance-based engineering and multi-criteria decision analysis for sustainable and resilient building design.” Struct. Saf. 74 (Sep): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.strusafe.2018.03.005.
Nadoushani, Z. S. M., and A. Akbarnezhad. 2015. “Effects of structural system on the life cycle carbon footprint of buildings.” Energy Build. 102 (Sep): 337–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.05.044.
NIBS (National Institute of Building Sciences). 2017. 2017 annual report to the President of the United States. Washington, DC: NIBS.
O’Connor, J. 2004. “Survey on actual service lives for North American buildings.” In Proc., Woodframe Housing Durability and Disaster Issues Conf., 1–9. Las Vegas: Aladdin Resort & Casino.
Olinzock, M. A., A. E. Landis, C. L. Saunders, W. O. Collinge, A. K. Jones, L. A. Schaefer, and M. M. Bilec. 2015. “Life cycle assessment use in the North American building community: Summary of findings from a 2011/2012 survey.” Int. J. Life Cycle Assess. 20 (3): 318–331. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-014-0834-y.
Pomponi, F., and A. Moncaster. 2018. “Scrutinising embodied carbon in buildings: The next performance gap made manifest.” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. 81 (Jan): 2431–2442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.049.
Porter, K. A., A. S. Kiremidjian, and J. S. LeGrue. 2001. “Assembly-based vulnerability of buildings and its use in performance evaluation.” Earthquake Spectra 17 (2): 291–312. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1586176.
Poulos, A., J. C. de la Llera, and J. Mitrani-Reiser. 2017. “Earthquake risk assessment of buildings accounting for human evacuation.” Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 46 (4): 561–583. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.2803.
Puga, H., B. Olmos, L. Olmos, J. Jara, and M. Jara. 2015. “Damage assessment of curtain wall glass.” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 628: 012052.
SEI (Structural Engineering Institute) Carbon Task Group. 2017. Structural materials and global climate: A primer on carbon emissions for structural engineers. Reston, VA: ASCE.
Shadram, F., T. D. Johansson, W. Lu, J. Schade, and T. Olofsson. 2016. “An integrated BIM-based framework for minimizing embodied energy during building design.” Energy Build. 128 (Sep): 592–604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.07.007.
SOM (Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill). 2013. “Environmental analysis tool.” Accessed December 9, 2018. https://somhpd.com/eatool/.
Soust-Verdaguer, B., C. Llatas, and A. García-Martínez. 2017. “Critical review of bim-based LCA method to buildings.” Energy Build. 136 (Feb): 110–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.12.009.
Thornton-Tomasetti. 2020. “Beacon: An embodied carbon feedback tool for structural engineers.” Accessed January 8, 2020. https://core-studio.gitbook.io/beacon/.
UNEP SBCI (United Nations Environment Program’s Sustainable Buildings and Climate Initiative). 2009. Buildings and climate change: Summary for decision-makers. Paris: UNEP SBCI.
USGS. 2019. “United States geological survey national seismic hazard mapping project application programming interface.” Accessed January 28, 2019. http://usgs.github.io/nshmp-haz/javadoc/.
Vamvatsikos, D., A. K. Kazantzi, and M. A. Aschheim. 2015. “Performance-based seismic design: Avant-garde and code-compatible approaches.” ASCE-ASME J. Risk Uncertainty Eng. Syst., Part A: Civ. Eng. 2 (2): C4015008. https://doi.org/10.1061/AJRUA6.0000853.
WBLCA (Whole Building Life Cycle Assessment) Guide Special Project Working Group. 2018. Whole building life cycle assessment: Reference building structure and strategies. Reston, VA: ASCE.
Wei, H.-H., I. M. Shohet, M. J. Skibniewski, S. Shapira, and X. Yao. 2016. “Assessing the lifecycle sustainability costs and benefits of seismic mitigation designs for buildings.” J. Archit. Eng. 22 (1): 04015011. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000188.
Welsh-Huggins, S. J., and A. B. Liel. 2017. “A life-cycle framework for integrating green building and hazard-resistant design: Examining the seismic impacts of buildings with green roofs.” Struct. Infrastruct. Eng. 13 (1): 19–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/15732479.2016.1198396.
Yu, N., T. Grenga, S. Salakij, and S. Paolucci. 2014. Thermal model for green scale digital design and analysis tool for sustainable building. Notre Dame, IN: Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Notre Dame.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

Go to Journal of Structural Engineering
Journal of Structural Engineering
Volume 147Issue 3March 2021

History

Received: Mar 27, 2019
Accepted: Sep 9, 2020
Published online: Dec 16, 2020
Published in print: Mar 1, 2021
Discussion open until: May 16, 2021

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

ASCE Technical Topics:

Authors

Affiliations

Karen Angeles, S.M.ASCE [email protected]
Graduate Student, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Univ. of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Email: [email protected]
Dimitrios Patsialis [email protected]
Graduate Student, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Univ. of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Email: [email protected]
Professor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Univ. of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (corresponding author). ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9784-7480. Email: [email protected]
Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Keough School of Global Affairs, Univ. of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6896-4752. Email: [email protected]
Aimee Buccellato [email protected]
Associate Professor, School of Architecture, Univ. of Notre Dame, 114 Walsh Family Hall of Architecture, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Email: [email protected]
Charles Vardeman II [email protected]
Research Assistant Professor, Center for Research Computing, Univ. of Notre Dame, 911 Flanner, Notre Dame, IN 46556. Email: [email protected]

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

Citations

Download citation

If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click Download.

Cited by

  • Exploring the Common Ground of Sustainability and Resilience in the Building Sector: A Systematic Literature Review and Analysis of Building Rating Systems, Sustainability, 10.3390/su15010884, 15, 1, (884), (2023).
  • Exploring Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Internet of Things (IoT) Integration for Sustainable Building, Buildings, 10.3390/buildings13020288, 13, 2, (288), (2023).
  • A Stochastic Formulation to Evaluate the Sustainability of Structural Systems, ASCE-ASME Journal of Risk and Uncertainty in Engineering Systems, Part A: Civil Engineering, 10.1061/AJRUA6.0001254, 9, 1, (2023).
  • Resilience and sustainability-informed probabilistic multi-criteria decision-making framework for design solutions selection, Journal of Building Engineering, 10.1016/j.jobe.2023.106421, 71, (106421), (2023).
  • An Adaptive ANP & ELECTRE IS-Based MCDM Model Using Quantitative Variables, Mathematics, 10.3390/math10122009, 10, 12, (2009), (2022).
  • Considering Time-Varying Factors and Social Vulnerabilities in Performance-Based Assessment of Coastal Communities Exposed to Hurricanes, Journal of Structural Engineering, 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0003400, 148, 8, (2022).
  • Advancing building data models for the automation of high-fidelity regional loss estimations using open data, Automation in Construction, 10.1016/j.autcon.2022.104382, 140, (104382), (2022).
  • Improving the computational efficiency of seismic building-performance assessment through reduced order modeling and multi-fidelity Monte Carlo techniques, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 10.1007/s10518-022-01551-4, 21, 2, (811-847), (2022).
  • Addressing the different sources of excitation variability in seismic response distribution estimation using kriging metamodeling, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 10.1002/eqe.3696, 51, 10, (2466-2495), (2022).
  • A decision-making framework for life-cycle energy and seismic loss assessment of buildings, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 10.1080/15732479.2021.1983613, 19, 7, (875-889), (2021).

View Options

Get Access

Access content

Please select your options to get access

Log in/Register Log in via your institution (Shibboleth)
ASCE Members: Please log in to see member pricing

Purchase

Save for later Information on ASCE Library Cards
ASCE Library Cards let you download journal articles, proceedings papers, and available book chapters across the entire ASCE Library platform. ASCE Library Cards remain active for 24 months or until all downloads are used. Note: This content will be debited as one download at time of checkout.

Terms of Use: ASCE Library Cards are for individual, personal use only. Reselling, republishing, or forwarding the materials to libraries or reading rooms is prohibited.
ASCE Library Card (5 downloads)
$105.00
Add to cart
ASCE Library Card (20 downloads)
$280.00
Add to cart
Buy Single Article
$35.00
Add to cart

Get Access

Access content

Please select your options to get access

Log in/Register Log in via your institution (Shibboleth)
ASCE Members: Please log in to see member pricing

Purchase

Save for later Information on ASCE Library Cards
ASCE Library Cards let you download journal articles, proceedings papers, and available book chapters across the entire ASCE Library platform. ASCE Library Cards remain active for 24 months or until all downloads are used. Note: This content will be debited as one download at time of checkout.

Terms of Use: ASCE Library Cards are for individual, personal use only. Reselling, republishing, or forwarding the materials to libraries or reading rooms is prohibited.
ASCE Library Card (5 downloads)
$105.00
Add to cart
ASCE Library Card (20 downloads)
$280.00
Add to cart
Buy Single Article
$35.00
Add to cart

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Copy the content Link

Share with email

Email a colleague

Share